global provider of customized laboratory and research services


Bladder Cancer

Bladder is a balloon-shaped organ in pelvic area that stores urine. Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract with ~380,000 new cases and ~150,000 deaths per year worldwide (1). It ranks fifth among cancers in men in Western countries. Bladder cancer typically affects older adults, though it can occur at any age.

Most patients present with haematuria (blood in urine), and diagnosis is made following cystoscopy and biopsy. Majority of bladder cancers cases are diagnosed at an early stage which is highly treatable; however, even early-stage bladder cancer is likely to recur. Therefore, bladder cancer survivors often undergo follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer recurrence.

In Europe and North America, >90% of bladder cancers are urothelial carcinoma. These tumours are staged using the Tumour–Node–Metastasis system (TNM system) (3), which describes the extent of invasion (Tis–T4), and they are graded according to their cellular characteristics. Other histological types include squamous, adenocarcinoma, micropapillary, small cell and plasmacytoid. In regions where the incidence of schistosomiasis is high, squamous cell carcinoma is more common, and bladder cancer may be the cancer of highest incidence.

Bladder cancer begins most often in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Currently there are two classification systems in use (4). At diagnosis the majority of bladder cancers (~60%) are non-muscleinvasive (stage Ta) papillary tumours of low grade (FIG. 1) (7).

bladder cancer

Stage T1 tumours, which have penetrated the epithelial basement membrane but have not invaded the muscle, are mostly of high grade, as are muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs; ~20% at diagnosis). Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs) frequently recur (50–70%) but infrequently progress to invasion (10–15%) (5),  and five-year survival is ~90%. These patients are monitored by cystoscopy and may have multiple resections over many years. Improved monitoring is needed, ideally via urine analysis, which could reduce the morbidity and costs associated with cystoscopy. Although risk tables provide a prognostic tool (6), no molecular biomarkers accurately predict disease progression. For these patients, localized therapies to remove residual neoplastic and pre-neoplastic cells post-resection may have major impacts both on quality of life and in health economic terms. MIBCs (of stage T2 and above) have less favorable prognosis with five-year survival.

For more information

General information is available through the following websites:

Risk Factors



BladderPredict™ Test

Test Information



BladderPredict™ Forms and Info

These requisition forms are fillable PDFs. You can complete the forms by typing your information in the provided fields, then print a hard copy for faxing. You will not be submitting your information online.